— Hampton Plantation Kitchen House © Brandon Coffey —
- Location Wambaw Creek (a branch of the South Santee River), McClellanville, St. James Santee Parish, Charleston County
Located at 1950 Rutledge Road, 9 miles north of McClellanville off US 17
- Origin of name Hampton was probably named after Hampton House, a house in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England. It was owned by David Garrick, a famous actor in the mid 1700s.
- Other names Horry Plantation
- Current status Open to the public as a State Historic Site
— Side of Hampton Plantation © Michael Kaynard —
- 1744 Daniel Horry purchased 600 acres from Anthony Bonneau. Hampton would eventually become several thousand acres (5, p. 705).
- 1740s Architectural historians agree that the original part of the house was built during this time. It was probably built by Daniel Horry (5, p. 706).
- 1762 Daniel Huger Horry inherited the plantation and slaves from his father, Daniel Horry. When Daniel Horry wrote his will in 1758 he stated that his son could not inherit until he turned twenty-one, or had children of his own, whichever came first. Daniel Huger Horry must have been twenty-one or older at the time of his father's death (8).
Daniel Huger Horry and his wife, Judith Serre Horry, made Hampton their home. Judith died in 1765 and Daniel remarried three years later. There were no children from this first marriage.
- 1760s Two wings were added to each side of the house. One wing was a ballroom and the other included a dining room and two other rooms. During the construction of the additions false windows were added to maintain the symmetry of the structure.
- 1768 Daniel Huger Horry married Harriott Pinckney, daughter of Eliza Lucas and Charles Pinckney. They made their home at Hampton.
- 1769-1770 Daniel and Harriott Horry had two children named Daniel and Harriott.
- 1778 The plantation became a refuge during the Revolutionary War for relatives and friends of Daniel and Harriott. Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Harriott's mother, was one of the refugees (4, p. 73).
- 1780 The British captured Charleston. They said any man still bearing arms against them would be treated as a traitor. They used this to justify searching houses and plantations, and confiscated any valuables, including slaves. Hampton was "visited" twice (4, pp. 78-79).
On the first visit the British were looking for Francis Marion. Marion had stopped off at Hampton for some food. While it was being prepared he fell asleep and the British came riding up. Harriott Horry instructed Marion to swim across the creek and hide out in the rice fields. Marion escaped and the house was searched, but nothing was taken or destroyed.
On the second visit the British were looking for Daniel Huger Horry and Major Thomas Pinckney. Major Pinckney escaped but Horry was made to surrender and pledge his loyalty to the British. He did so in order to protect his family and property. The house was thoroughly plundered but no buildings were burned (4, p. 80-82).
- 1782 The British Parliament voted to end the war and establish peace. British troops left Charleston in December. At this time all those who had been loyalist during the war were considered traitors by the Americans, and their property was confiscated. Daniel Huger Horry was considered a traitor but his Pinckney in-laws helped defend him. He had to pay an Amercement Tax (a fine) to keep his property (4, p. 96-97).
Once the war was over Daniel worked to restore the plantation and its rice fields.
- 1785 Daniel Huger Horry died in November. His symptoms lead one to believe he died of liver failure. Harriott described his illness in the following excerpt of a letter written to her mother:
Nov.b 7th 1785
...We found M.r Horrÿ seriously ill... he is as yellow as the darkest Orange. The Bile is so much with the Blood.... he has had the hiccough's almost continually these two days.... , he speaks very thick and is much confused, is scarce ever free from the hiccoughs and his tongue is much crusted.....
Tuesday Morning 11 O'Clock.
M.r Horrÿ slept all night, but very uneasily, he breaths hard and complains much of a great oppression at his stomach he talks a good deal but very confusedly, his pulse appears to me to be good but I think he is too warm upon the whole as I think him worse than he was yesterday..." (6)
In his will, Daniel left ownership of Hampton to his son, Daniel. However, Harriott was given use of the plantation for the rest of her life. Once she died then Daniel would have complete control of the plantation (9).
Daniel Horry, the son, was living in Europe at the time. He later changed his name to Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry and never returned to his home. His mother and grandmother continued to manage the plantation in his absence.
- 1786 An inventory was done of Daniel Huger Horry's estate. Every item he owned was recorded and appraised, from slaves to furniture to horses.
- 1790-1791 Harriott and Eliza had a portico built on the land side of the house. It was the first Adam style portico built in the Lowcountry. The portico is almost an exact copy of the one on David Garrick's house Hampton House in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England.
- 1791 George Washington visited Hampton during his Southern Tour.
While visiting, the President was asked whether a certain oak tree should be cut down to create a better view from the portico. He replied that he liked the tree, and it was saved. From then on the tree was known as the Washington Oak (4, pp. 120-121).
- 1793 Eliza Lucas Pinckney died in Philadelphia. It is believed that she had cancer and was seeking treatment in Philadelphia. George Washington asked to be a pallbearer because he thought so highly of Eliza and her family.
- 1797 Daniel and Harriott's daughter, Harriott, married Frederick Rutledge. They made their home at Hampton.
- 1824 Frederick Rutledge died leaving Harriott with eight children. She and her mother continued to manage the plantation and raise the children.
One of the eight children, John Henry Rutledge, met with a tragic ending. The story is that he committed suicide because he was not allowed to marry a certain girl. He thought his life was over and could not imagine living without the girl he so loved. He shot himself in the house at the age of twenty-one.
- 1828 Daniel Horry (Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry) died and left all of his property in Carolina and France to his mother, Harriott Pinckney Horry, and wife, Elenore Marie Florimonde de Foy La Tour Marbourg Horry. They were to have equal shares and could not dispose of their half without the consent of the other (10).
Daniel Horry's wife eventually sold parts of her share but Hampton remained in the ownership and management of his mother.
- 1830 Harriot Picnkney Horry died and she left Hampton to her daughter, Harriott Horry Rutledge (11).
Harriott Horry Rutledge continued to manage the plantation. Two of her sons helped her when they could but they had other careers they were pursuing. Henry Middleton Rutledge, a grandson, inherited the plantation (5, pp. 708-709).
- 1865 Henry Middleton Rutledge returned from the Civil War and began to manage the plantation.
- 1866 Henry Middleton Rutledge married Anna Marie Blake. They were married for ten years before Anna died.
- 1876 Henry Middleton Rutledge married Margaret Hamilton Seabrook. From this marriage Archibald Rutledge was born. The Rutledges worked hard to send their youngest son to school.
Archibald Rutledge did get his education and he went on to teach school in Pennsylvania. He wrote numerous books and poems and became Poet Laureate of South Carolina.
- 1937 Archibald Rutledge returned to Hampton to live there permanently. He restored the house and wrote a book about it called Home By the River.
- 1971 Archibald Rutledge and his family gave Hampton Plantation to the South Carolina State Park Service. It became a State Historic Site and was opened to the public.
— Ballroom at Hampton Plantation © Brandon Coffey —
- Number of acres 322 in 2006
- Primary crop Rice
- Chronological list Anthony Bonneau (?-1744), Daniel Horry (1744-1762), Daniel Huger Horry (1762-1785), Daniel Horry/Charles Lucas Pinckney Horry (1785-1828), Harriott Pinckney Horry and Elenore Marie Florimonde de Foy La Tour Marbourg Horry (1828-1830), Harriott Horry Rutledge (1830-?), Henry Middleton Rutledge, Archibald Rutledge (?-1971), South Carolina State Park Service (1971-present)
- Number of slaves 314 in 1786 (Inventory)
— Foundation of Hampton Plantation © Michael Kaynard —
- Plantation house Architectural historians date the original part of the house to the 1740s. Two wings were added in the 1760s and the portico was added in 1791. The house is an example of Georgian architecture with an attic and raised basement that run the length of the house. Cypress and loblolly pine trees were used to construct the house.
Daniel Horry's inventory list twelve rooms in the house with one of the rooms being a ballroom. The floorboards in the ballroom are almost 40 feet long and are made from the pine trees that were on the property.
The whole house is put together using mortise and tenon joints secured with pegs. Each piece of wood for the frame of the house was cut and marked with roman numerals and then put together like a puzzle. Evidence of this type of construction can still be seen in the house.
The portico was designed in the Adam style of architecture. It was the first of its kind to be built in the Lowcountry. It was modeled after the portico on David Garrick's house called Hampton House in Hampton-on-the-Thames, England. Archibald Rutledge removed the original bases of the columns and replaced them with concrete ones. In 2003, one of the columns was taken down, repaired, and then placed back on a new base. Using historic pictures and drawings the new base was designed to look like the original.
References & Resources
- Hampton Plantation State Historic Site: Click here
- National Register of Historic Places
Nomination form - PDF - submitted in 1976
Photographs, architectural overview
- Hampton Plantation painting
- Anne Baker Leland Bridges and Roy Williams III, St. James Santee, Plantation Parish: History and Records, 1685-1925
- Hampton Plantation State Historic Site
1950 Rutledge Road
McClellanville, SC 29458
Website: Click here
— View from Foundation of Hampton Plantation © Michael Kaynard —
— Detail of Porch at Hampton Plantation © Michael Kaynard —
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